Acute Training Load or ATL: Overall quantity of training (frequency, duration and intensity) performed recently, within 7 to 14 days. Acute Training Load or ATL is often interpreted as representing fatigue and would be the purple font and line in your TrainingPeaks Performance Management Chart or PMC.

Adaptation: Refers to the process of the body getting accustomed to a particular exercise or training program through repeated exposure. 

Aerobic: With oxygen.

Aerobic Capacity: The body’s maximal capacity for using/take on oxygen to produce energy at maximum exertion, also known as VO2 max.

Anaerobic: Without oxygen or to reach a point where exercise demands more oxygen than the heart and lung can supply,

Anaerobic Endurance: The length of time at an anaerobic effort/interval/target that can be maintained before fatigue.

Base Phase: A mesocycle during which the most basic ability of cycling fitness is focused i.e. endurance.

Bonk: Extreme exhaustion caused by a depletion of glycogen in the muscle during a long ride.

Big Ring Sprints: Maximal effort executed in the biggest chain-ring on the bicycle.

Build Phase: Specific preparation mesocycle where there is a shift to higher intensity that of the Base Training Period. The workouts become increasingly like the race you’re preparing for. 

Cadence: The number of times you rotate the crank arm in one minute, i.e. RPM - revolutions per minute.

Carbohydrate Loading: Short-term dietary procedure that elevates muscle glycogen stores by consuming carbohydrates.

Cardiovascular Fitness: The capability of the cardiovascular system to transport oxygen to tissues – example working contracting muscle, aid in thermoregulation by increasing blood flow to the skin, etc.

Cardiac Output: Measured in litres per minute, it is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. 

Chronic Training Load or CTL: Overall quantity of training (frequency, duration and intensity) performed over a substantial long period of time, several months or more. Chronic Training Load or CTL is often interpreted as representing fitness, and would be the blue font and line in your TrainingPeaks Performance Management Chart or PMC. 

Cool-down: Low intensity exercise effort at the end of a workout to return the body to a resting state.

Economy: A measurement of fuel/energy efficiency.

Endurance: The ability to sustain a predominantly aerobic power output for an extended period i.e. the physiological ability to persist, resisting fatigue.

Fartlek: Unstructured interval type workout, also known as tempo.

Fatigue: A term used to describe an overall feeling of tiredness or lack of energy. It is a natural result of a race, hard session and or load; and the body’s way of communicating that it needs rest.

Form: The physical potential to perform well. It depends on both current fitness and fatigue levels.

Frequency: The number times you train per week or per microcycle.

Functional Threshold Power or FTP: The highest sustainable power you can maintain for 60 minutes. 

Glucose: A simple sugar.

Glycogen: A major source of fuel during exercise and is stored as a form for carbohydrates within the body; in both muscles and the liver. 

Intensity: A measurement of training effort.

Lactate Threshold or LT: The maximal exercise intensity that can be maintained while blood lactate concentration remains stable. 

Macrocycle: A period of training made up of several mesocycles, it usually an entire season.

Mesocycle: A period of training made up of two or more microcycles. A mesocycle is generally two to six weeks long which include a block of more intensive training, followed by a recovery period. 

Metabolism: The process by which the body converts fat and carbohydrates into energy. 

Microburst: Intervals with a short work duration and rest period, it can be in 1:1 or 1:2 ratio such as 15 seconds on and 15 seconds off or 40 seconds on and 20 seconds off.

Microcycle: This is the smallest structure of training cycle, and often 7 days long.

Overtrained: A chronic state of overreaching from which recovery takes a long period of time.

Peak Phase: A short mesocycle before goal event or race where training volume is reduce and intensity is increased.

Preparation Phase: To develop general fitness through cross–training i.e. lifting weights, core training, flexibility training and aerobic activities such as running in the beginning and cycling as the phase progresses.

Race Phase: This is the event goal or race mesocycle during which training load is significantly decreased.

Rating of Perceived Exertion or RPE:  A subjective evaluation of how strenuous exercise intensity feels. 

Repeatability: This is an athlete’s ability to repeat a certain efforts/interval many times without a loss in power.

Rest Day: A break from your regular workout routine every 7 to 10 day. Rest days gives the body a chance to repair and recover, and prevents injury.

Self-selected Cadence: A cadence range which you naturally pedal without consciously thinking about cadence.   

Stroke Volume: The amount of blood (in ml) pumped by the heart per beat. 

Sweet Spot: Training intensity between 88 to 93 percent of Functional Threshold Power.

Threshold Heart Rate: The heart rate corresponding to Functional Threshold Power.

Training Stress Balance or TSB: A formulated training metric that represents the difference in the balance of training stress. Training Stress Balance or TSB is often interpreted as representing form, and would be the yellow font and line in your TrainingPeaks Performance Management Chart or PMC. Note - TSB is not as a predictor of performance but as a measure of how adapted an athlete is to their training load. 


Training Stress Score or TSS: A training metric that quantifies the overall training load and physiological stress created by a workout or a portion of a workout. TSS is modeled after the heart rate based training impulse, TRIMP.

Training Zones: Levels of training intensity based on a measurement of heart rate or power. Training zones offer a quantifiable method of guiding workouts.

Transition Phase: Two to four weeks for rest and recovery, both mentally and physically. 

TRIMP: Training Impulse and defined as the product of training volume, measured in minutes, and training intensity, measured as average heart rate.

VO2 max: The capacity for oxygen consumption by the body during maximal exertion.


Warm-up: Intended to prepare the body for high intensities, a period of gradually increasing the exercise intensity at the start of a workout.

Ultra-Endurance Cycling: Defined as a bike race that is over 100-miles.