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Acute Training Load or ATL: Overall quantity of training (frequency, duration and intensity) performed recently, within 7 to 14 days. Acute Training Load or ATL is often interpreted as representing fatigue and would be the purple font and line in your TrainingPeaks Performance Management Chart or PMC.

Adaptation: Refers to the process of the body getting accustomed to a particular exercise or training program through repeated exposure. 

Audax: A form of long-distance cycling that challenges riders to complete a predetermined route within a specified time limit. These are rides/events that range from 200 km to 1200 km or more, and are organized by local clubs or national associations. Audax cyclists are expected to be self-reliant and follow the rules of the road, as well as carry their own equipment, food and water.

Aerobic: With oxygen.

Aerobic Capacity: The body’s maximal capacity for using/take on oxygen to produce energy at maximum exertion, also known as VO2 max.

Anaerobic: Without oxygen or to reach a point where exercise demands more oxygen than the heart and lung can supply,

Anaerobic Endurance: The length of time at an anaerobic effort/interval/target that can be maintained before fatigue.

Athlete: A person who prioritizes exercise, performance, and health in their lives.


Balanced diet: This refers to the intake appropriate amounts of food and fluid to supply nutrition and energy to support normal growth and for maintaining your body’s cells, tissues and organs.

Base Phase: A mesocycle during which the most basic ability of cycling fitness is focused i.e. endurance.


Beginner: A cyclist who is new to the sport, doing a certain event for the first time and looking for entry level training. Your goal might be to make it across the finish line.

Big Ring Sprints: Maximal effort executed in the biggest chain-ring on the bicycle.

Bonk: Extreme exhaustion caused by a depletion of glycogen in the muscle during a long ride.


Breathing: Breathing is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the environment. Breathing involves the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles, which change the volume and pressure of the chest cavity. Breathing is essential for all aerobic organisms, as it provides oxygen for cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide as a waste product.

Build Phase: Specific preparation mesocycle where there is a shift to higher intensity that of the Base Training Period. The workouts become increasingly like the race you’re preparing for. 

Cadence: The number of times you rotate the crank arm in one minute, i.e. RPM - revolutions per minute.

Carbohydrates: Or carbs, are sugar molecules. Carbohydrates break down into glucose molecules – when used as energy, they become fuel for your muscle and brain. Along with proteins and fats, carbohydrates are one of three main nutrients found in foods and drinks. Recommended that your diet consists of 65% carbohydrates.

Carbohydrate Loading: Short-term dietary procedure that elevates muscle glycogen stores by consuming carbohydrates.

Cardiovascular Fitness: The capability of the cardiovascular system to transport oxygen to tissues – example working contracting muscle, aid in thermoregulation by increasing blood flow to the skin, etc.

Cardiac Output: Measured in litres per minute, it is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. 

Chronic Training Load or CTL: Overall quantity of training (frequency, duration and intensity) performed over a substantial long period of time, several months or more. Chronic Training Load or CTL is often interpreted as representing fitness, and would be the blue font and line in your TrainingPeaks Performance Management Chart or PMC. 


Competitive: A cyclist with more than four years of training experience, who has trained and competed in a certain event more than three times. Your goal might be to win your category, age group, finish near the top or stand on the podium.

Cool-down: Low intensity exercise effort at the end of a workout to return the body to a resting state.


Dehydration: Reduction of plasma, making the blood thick and forcing the heart and body to work harder moving it.

Economy: A measurement of fuel/energy efficiency.

Endurance: The ability to sustain a predominantly aerobic power output for an extended period i.e. the physiological ability to persist, resisting fatigue.


Fat: Supplies your body with essential fatty acids which are responsible for healthy growth and development. Fat is also a source of energy for physical activity. And fat cells cushion organs and acts as insulation against cold temperature. Recommended that your diet consists of 15% healthy fats.

Fartlek: Unstructured interval type workout, also known as tempo.

Fatigue: A term used to describe an overall feeling of tiredness or lack of energy. It is a natural result of a race, hard session and or load; and the body’s way of communicating that it needs rest.

Form: The physical potential to perform well. It depends on both current fitness and fatigue levels.

Frequency: The number times you train per week or per microcycle.

Functional Threshold Power or FTP: The highest sustainable power you can maintain for 60 minutes. 

Glucose: A simple sugar.

Glycogen: A major source of fuel during exercise and is stored as a form for carbohydrates within the body; in both muscles and the liver. 


Healthy eating: This is based on your nutritional needs and may include a variety of foods.

Intensity: A measurement of training effort.

Intermediate: A cyclist with at least one to three years training experience, who has trained and competed in a certain event more than once. Your goal might be to finish near the top of your category or age group.

Lactate Threshold or LT: The maximal exercise intensity that can be maintained while blood lactate concentration remains stable. 

Macrocycle: A period of training made up of several mesocycles, it usually an entire season.


Macronutrients: Your body needs these nutrients in larger amounts in order to function properly as macro means large. The three macronutrients found in food are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. 

Mesocycle: A period of training made up of two or more microcycles. A mesocycle is generally two to six weeks long which include a block of more intensive training, followed by a recovery period. 

Metabolism: The process by which the body converts fat and carbohydrates into energy. 

Microburst: Intervals with a short work duration and rest period, it can be in 1:1 or 1:2 ratio such as 15 seconds on and 15 seconds off or 40 seconds on and 20 seconds off.

Microcycle: This is the smallest structure of training cycle, and often 7 days long.


Micronutrients: Are vitamins and minerals, these do not provide energy, however they are essential part of your diet as they boost the immune system, support normal growth and development, and help cells and organs do their jobs.

Non-racer: A beginner, intermediate or competitive cyclist who doesn’t race but wants to build and or maintain fitness or just get faster. Your training goal can be anything. It could be a tangible goal like aiming to finish a tough local ride in a certain amount of time or completing an Everesting.


Off Season: Off season training is a period of time when athletes focus on improving their skills, strength, and conditioning without the pressure of competing. Off season training can help athletes prevent injuries, recover from fatigue, and prepare for the next season. Off season training may vary depending on the sport, level, and goals of the athlete.


Overreaching: Happens after several consecutive days of hard training and results in feeling run down. Luckily, the effects of overreaching can be easily reversed with rest.

Overtrained: A chronic state of overreaching from which recovery takes a long period of time..., occurs when an athlete ignores the signs of overreaching and continues to train.

Peak Phase: A short mesocycle before goal event or race where training volume is reduce and intensity is increased.

Plyometrics: Is a type of exercise training that uses speed and force of different movements to build muscle power.

Preparation Phase: To develop general fitness through cross–training i.e. lifting weights, core training, flexibility training and aerobic activities such as running in the beginning and cycling as the phase progresses.

Protein: Made up of chemical 'building blocks' called amino acids. Your body uses amino acids to build and repair muscles and bones and to make hormones and enzymes. They can also be used as an energy source. Protein is an important part of a healthy diet, it is essential for building and repairing muscles and bones. Recommended that your diet consists of 25% proteins.

Race Phase: This is the event goal or race mesocycle during which training load is significantly decreased.

Rating of Perceived Exertion or RPE: A subjective evaluation of how strenuous exercise intensity feels. 

Repeatability: This is an athlete’s ability to repeat a certain efforts/interval many times without a loss in power.

Rest Day: A break from your regular workout routine every 7 to 10 day. Rest days gives the body a chance to repair and recover, and prevents injury.

Self-selected Cadence: A cadence range which you naturally pedal without consciously thinking about cadence.   

Smart/interactive indoor trainer: A smart/interactive indoor trainer is a type of indoor bike trainer that uses electronics to adjust the trainer resistance in real-time, typically provides power data, and is capable of connecting to computers, tablets and smartphones to help you get the most of your workout. 

Sports Drinks: Are carbohydrate energy supplement that can be used before, during, and after exercise to improve performance and accelerate recovery.

Sports Nutrition: Refers to eating a healthy balanced diet that is specific to your sport.

Stroke Volume: The amount of blood (in ml) pumped by the heart per beat. 

Sweet Spot: Training intensity between 88 to 93 percent of Functional Threshold Power.

Threshold Heart Rate: The heart rate corresponding to Functional Threshold Power.

Training Stress Balance or TSB: A formulated training metric that represents the difference in the balance of training stress. Training Stress Balance or TSB is often interpreted as representing form, and would be the yellow font and line in your TrainingPeaks Performance Management Chart or PMC. Note - TSB is not as a predictor of performance but as a measure of how adapted an athlete is to their training load. 


Training Stress Score or TSS: A training metric that quantifies the overall training load and physiological stress created by a workout or a portion of a workout. TSS is modelled after the heart rate based training impulse, TRIMP.

Training Zones: Levels of training intensity based on a measurement of heart rate or power. Training zones offer a quantifiable method of guiding workouts.

Transition Phase: Two to four weeks for rest and recovery, both mentally and physically. 

TRIMP: Training Impulse and defined as the product of training volume, measured in minutes, and training intensity, measured as average heart rate.

VO2max: The capacity for oxygen consumption by the body during maximal exertion.


Warm-up: Intended to prepare the body for high intensities, a period of gradually increasing the exercise intensity at the start of a workout.

Ultra-Endurance Cycling: Defined as a bike ride or race that is over 100-miles.

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